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Articoli

00° ikebana scuola Ohara

01° Preambolo e Introduzione

02° concetto di forte e debole

03° il vuoto nell’ikebana

04° peso ottico dei vegetali

05° relazione fra ikebana e ambiente

06° ikebana e buddhismo zen

07° il roppo o sei princìpi di HSIEH HO

08° credenze, superstizioni, pratiche magico-religiose e ikebana

09° feng-shui e ikebana

10° etica dell’ikebanista/Ka-dō

11° Tenno donne del Giappone

12° la nascita dell’ikebana secondo la tradizione

13° la nascita dell’ikebana secondo le fonti storiche

14° nageire o heika

15° origine simbolica dell’ikebana: tao e shinto

16° hongatte/di-destra e gyakugatte/di-sinistra: introduzione

17° composizione di-destra e di-sinistra

18° importanza di conoscere le opere artistiche giapponesi

19° i kata nell’ikebana/Ka-dō

20° il decalogo dell’ikebanista che coglie i vegetali

21° SHIN, GYŌ, SŌ

22° Influsso del buddhismo sulla struttura dell’ikebana

23° Tai-ji e scuola Ikenobō

24° lo shintoismo e l’ikebana: dal rikka allo shōka e seika

25° omote e ura dell’ikebana

26 °caratteristiche zen delle arti tradizionali giapponesi, ikebana incluso mono no aware, yugen, wabi-sabi

27° buddhismo zen e ikebana

28° sumo e ikebana

29° visione orientale della bellezza

30° l’asimmetria nell’ikebana

31° haiku e ikebana

32° l’ikebana e la storia: dal periodo Asuka al Kamakura

33° l’ikebana e la storia: periodo Muromachi e Azuchi-Momoyama

34° l’ikebana e la storia: periodo Edo

35° ikebana e la storia: era Meiji (1868 – 1912), Taisho (1912-1925) e Showa (1926-1989)

36° introduzione storica alla composizione Bunjin: i Letterati

37° origine mitologica del Giappone

38° il simbolismo dei vegetali

39° suiseki e ikebana

40° morimono, ikebana, suiseki e…………… altro

41° composizioni rimpa: introduzione

42° rimpa: scuola di Koetsu e Sotatsu

43° rimpa: scuola di Ogata Korin e Ogata Kenzan

44° rimpa: scuola di Hoitsu e Kiitsu

45° gli iemoto Ohara

46° il tè e l’ikebana

47° i cestini nell’ikebana – cerimonia del tè -Chanoyu-, prima parte

48° i cestini nell’ikebana – cerimonia del tè, seconda parte

49° i sostegni nell’ikebana

50° lingua giapponese

51° ikebana specchio delle stagioni

52° genesi ed evoluzione dello Stile -Che si riflette nell’acqua-

53° dall’ikebana…. …….alla cucina… …alla tecnica fotografica

54° evoluzione dell’ikebana nella lettura dei kanji

55° ikebana kadō

56° i sei kaki di Mu Qi

57° vasi raku

58° l’importanza di un punto di crescita unitario della composizione

59° stagionalizzazione della natura

61° la camelia nella cultura giapponese e nell’ikebana

62° uso dei numeri dispari nell’ikebana

63° wu xing (cinque agenti) e ikebana

64° ikebana e triade buddhista

65° “errori da evitare”

66° Il sentimento delle stagioni nei paraventi giapponesi dipinti

67° simbolismo della composizione ikebana nel suo insieme

68° profondità nelle composizioni ikebana tradizionali

69° nascita degli stili ikebana

70° estetica basara e ikebana

 

Plants, in their whole and in their single parts, grow in nature in a harmonious way with respect to the plants that surround them. Once they have been picked and detached “from the natural harmony” in which they have grown and are arranged in a container, it is only through the compositional rules of ikebana that harmony between the plants is restored.

This happens because these rules derive from religion-philosophies (Shintoism, Buddhism and Zen Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism) in which Man and Nature are part of the same entity (unlike Christianity which sees them separated) and therefore “governed” by the same principles; moreover, these rules (as in all Japanese Traditional Arts) have been “distilled” passing from one generation of Ikebanist masters to the other from the 15th century to the present day.

As happen with the grammatical rules, for those who learn a foreign language, which must be learned and “pedantically” applied by the beginner and then forgotten by those who speak the language fluently because they have acquired them, the rules of ikebana are not an end in themselves but serve to understand the guiding principles governing the relationships between the individual plants, the container, the place where the composition is placed.

 THE DISPOSITION OF VEGETABLE ELEMENTS IN IKEBANA HAS ALWAYS REPRESENTED SYMBOLICALLY THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF ITS CREATORS AND ITS CUSTOMERS, THEIR RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL BELIEFS. AND EVEN THOUGH THESE SYMBOLS HAVE LOST THEIR MEANING OVE TIME, THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE IKEBANA BASED ON THESE SYMBOLS HAS STAYED PRACTICALLY UNCHANGED TO THIS DAY.

 

 

 

 

 

The compositions since the 15th century (the period in which ikebana appeared) until the beginning of the Edo period were symbolic constructions that used plants to represent philosophical-religious concepts. These compositions expressed the harmony of the universe by referring not only to Shintoist and Buddhist symbolism but also to the concept of yin/yang. see art. 2

 

in fact:

 

 

 

 

° of the leaves, branches and flowers is considered:

– Yang the side that grows towards the sun (hi-omote) and

– Yin the side, that grows towards the ground (hi-ura)

 hi=sun

omote=face/side

ura= opposite, below

 

Front/Yang/Positive        Back/Yin/Negative

 

 

 

° of the whole composition one side was considered yang (containing yang plants: ki-mono, ki=wood) and the other one was considered the yin side (containing yin plants: kusa-mono, kusa=grass) see art. 15°: Ikebana’s symbolic origins

° the composition was composed by an odd number of elements (odd numbers are preferred because they are considered yang) with the only exception of number two which, although yin, like all even numbers, is used because it is considered the sum of yang + yin. see art. 62°

 

It was only during the Edo period (1603-1868 ), that both the cosmic and mystical vision of life and the sacred perception of nature, characteristic of previous eras, began to decline. At the same time a process of secularization of the arts in general, including Ikebana, takes place: the symbology on which the creation of the compositional rules of ikebana was based is considered outdated and, little by little, is partially forgotten: most of these compositional rules based on religious-philosophical symbols continue to be applied without knowing their symbolic origin.

 


The arrangements are now perceived in a different way and, consequently, they are identified with a new reading of the kanji. While at the beginning of the Edo period, they were read in On-reading shō-ka/sei-ka now they are read, in Kun-reading, ike-bana, highlighting the verb ikeru=giving life, i.e. plants are no longer seen for their symbolism but express themselves as living beings.  see art. 50°, about On-reading and Kun-reading and 54°, kanji reading and the evolution of ikebana

Despite this change in the overall view of compositions, the basic rules of composition remain those of the Rikka, even if simplified.

Still at the beginning of 1800 in the text “Enshū sōka ikō kadenshō” (oral transmission of the ikebana of the Enshū school), anonymous dated 1801, is peremptorily asserted:

-if in a composition you don’t find the principles of yin/yang, this is not an ikebana.

In Japan, religious and philosophical syncretism has always been practised, i.e. there has never been the need to choose one religion or philosophy while rejecting the others; from every religion or philosophy, people have always chosen what seemed most suitable or useful depending on the circumstances, be it in private or public life or for rites of passage such as birth, marriage, funeral.

Also ikebana reflects this syncretism because in its construction the symbols of different religions and philosophies are easily recognizable: the choice of plants and their association, their ideal position in the composition and their direction, the measures, all are based on the symbols of Taoism, Shintoism, Buddhism, neo-Confucianism and on magical-religious practices such as feng-shui.

 

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